Turaida Castle. Turaida Museum reserve is located 50 km North-East of Riga, on the right bank of the river Gauja. It covers an area of 41 hectares, on which is situated 37 historic buildings and structures. At the Forum of European museums in Barcelona Turaida Museum reserve was awarded a special diploma of recognition for achievements and a winner is awarded annually by 10 best museums of Europe. According to statistics, it is visited by approximately 170 thousand. tourists per year. Turaida Castle, one of the most popular historical Museum complexes of Latvia.
In 1214 he ordered by Bishop Albert of Riga Bukshevdena, for 13 years who founded at the mouth of the Daugava River, the future capital of Latvia is Riga, Raceburgskij Bishop Philip founded the Turaida Castle. When the construction of the castle was finished, it was called “Fredeland” that can be translated from German as “Peaceful land”. The German name is rooted in the Livonian land but survived and came to the present day name of Turaida, Livonian language that means “Divine Garden”.
Turaida Castle remained its strategic importance throughout the following centuries. But after the fire of 1776, the castle was almost completely burnt out. At the beginning of 19 in the courtyard of the medieval fortress was constructed Manor: built houses, stables, barns and other outbuildings. In 1924, the Society for the preservation of Monuments Board has made the list of the Turaida castle ruins of historical objects protected by the State. To restore a medieval fortress began only at the end of the 2nd world war, nearly 200 years later, after the destruction of the castle in flames of fire. The restoration was started in 1953, and the first was restored to the main tower of the Castle.
Extensive archaeological excavations and research took place in the castle in the year 1974. The works were supervised by year 1976 honorary member of Latvian Academy of Sciences Professor Jānis Graudonis. Among the approximately five thousand old finds made during excavations, the most interesting are:
- several ancient furnaces,
- bath with a water well,
- about three dozen copper and silver coins, and even one gold Ducat,
- metal arrowheads,
- nails for horseshoes, etc.
Of special interest are the above-mentioned principle of heating furnace, which was used in the public baths in ancient Rome. Warm air furnaces Turaida Castle was raised on special voids in masonry and covered the walls and under the floors of a medieval fortress, is warming the room.
The scientific description of found objects is about 1000 pages of text. In addition, the excavation is made up of about 500 different plans and schemes, and was nearly 7 thousand photos.
The main tower of the fortress fully restored, reaching 26 meters in height, is today used as a viewing point for many tourists. From the top floor of this unique Tower offers stunning views of the picturesque surroundings, not coincidentally called the Switzerland of Latvia for its beauty.
To the observation deck are very narrow and low tunnels with stone steps. The width of these moves are unlikely to exceed 0.5 meters and a height of just over 1.5 m. In addition to the lookout tower restored the fortress walls, Semicircular towers, North Tower and South Tower construction. And the restored and renovated former farm building dating from 1962 onwards Exposition Turaida Museum reserve.
Begun almost half a century ago, archaeological excavations and research continues in the Turaida Castle until today, and all new and new finds are constantly replenish the Museum Fund, whose exhibition is open for visitors all 365 days of the year.
Turaida castle became one of the centers of cultural life in Latvia. There are ancient and modern music concerts, there are numerous folk and ethnographic festivals are organized various exhibitions and many other cultural events. In the courtyard of the Castle are artisans.
The reconstructed Castle at the turn of the 20-21 centuries.
The legend of the Rose of Turaida
In the spring of 1601 years Swedish troops captured the Turaida Castle. After the battle the Palace scribe Grafe istoŝënnuû hunger among the dead found the girl. Grafe brought the girl home and pledged to educate her. It was in the month of may, so the baby girl they named Maya.
It took years, Maya has grown to become a beautiful girl. Because of its beauty, the people called Maya Rose of Turaida. On the opposite bank of the river Gauja, in Sigulda, Palace lived her fiancé gardener Victor Hale. In the evenings they met at the cave of the Gutmann. To please his fiancee, a young gardener dug the cave to the left of the Gutmann cavern. Waiting for his bride, he was decorated with the cave flowers. Even in our days it is called the cave of Victor.
At this time among the mercenaries in the castle of Turaida had two deserters of the Polish Army-Adam Jakubowski and pēteris Skudritis. Both were pretty good, but cut down, were nerâšlivy, rude and superstitious. Therefore, managing the Castle meant they would soon lay off.
Adam Jakubowski, whose beauty Maya, tried to get close. But do not help not promises, not threats. The Maya also rejected his proposal. This piqued Âkubovskom hatred. He decided to take revenge and to take possession of the Maya by force. Pēteris Skudritis agreed to help.
August 6, 1620 years, Maya has received the news (of Victor Hale) with an invitation to come to the cave Gutmann. Having come to the meeting place, the Maya saw Jakubowski and Skudritisa and realized that she was cheated. Adam Jakubowski immediately attacked the girl tore her dress and daring words indicated that he intended to do with Maya. The girl resisted, but when Skudritis and grabbed her by the shoulders from behind, the Maya had been defeated. Falling girl loudly appealed to the Lord, but then rose to his feet and shouted: “Jakubowski rampage the fuck outta me! I’ll give you the biggest gift that will not be able to give any King. “Jakubowski momentarily let go of the girl and asked that it be for a gift. Maia launched its light-red shawl, that was nakinut on his neck and lodged his Jakubowski, saying that it is a magic scarf, and when his own povâžet Jakubowski, nobody will be able to injure it nor spear nor sword. Adam did not believe at first and said that even if the armor cannot protect from this, such a bauble, like this scarf that too will not be able to, and tried again to grab the girl. Maya then shouted: “stop! Now you see the strength of the handkerchief. I povâžu it. Sword at you, Ruby from the forces and I do not pričiniš′ any harm “.
Adam took his sword, who lay on the ground. During this time, the girl put on her handkerchief, crossed her hands and, looking up, quietly to myself something whispered. Skudritis found this spells. Adam, after saying the following words: “it’s going to be something great! This I want to try, but you still stay in my power! “, pulled the sword from the scabbard and every full force hit the sword on the neck with a scarf-covered girl. Immediately began to pour blood and without even vskriknuv, the Maya fell to the ground.
Adam Jakubowski at first at a loss remained standing, while the body of a girl again, not sodrognulos′, and her life has not left. Then Adam angrily shouted: “I did not expect! She wanted to stay faithful to the bridegroom, and I was a terrible beast, beast. ” He escaped down a large cave, threw his sword in the spring that flowed at the base of the cave and, told Skudritisu: “don’t come, I’ll have you room will strangle!” that ran deep into the forest. After a while Skudritis found Adam in the forest. He hanged himself on the belt of your sword.
Skudritis just watched the incident, not even trying to dissuade Adam from using a sword, as to believe that the scarf has magical powers and a spasëtsâ girl. Only after Skudritis realized idea of girls-it is better to die than to give himself to others.
On the evening of August 6, 1620 years Victor Hale in the usual time came to the cave of Gutmann met with his fiancee and found Her murdered. The ground was thickly covered with blood, which is mixed with sand. In desperation, Hale ran in Turajdu for people. On the second day of the land, the judge arrived. After visiting the cave, he found a hatchet gardener. Victor Hale was accused in the death of Maya. Hale acknowledged that hatchet belonged to him but denied any connection with the killing. Judges, in turn, felt that a true recognition can only be obtained under torture and gave orders to prepare the instruments of torture. The course of events changed Skudritis, Pēteris which massacre did not give rest. He appeared in court to get punished, and told the truth. Reading Skudritisa Hale saved from torture. Skudritisom said 8-year-old mother had a daughter Grejfa. She conducted Her to the cave and saw everything from a short distance. Suspicions against Hale immediately disappeared. The judge acknowledged the possibility that hatchet, which was inserted by the waist, dropped out at the moment of horror and despair, when Hale found his dead bride, and he did not notice. Now it has been cleared up completely.
Gardener Victor Hale and old scribe With both show up for court and requested not to impose Pēteris Skudritisa to death or other punishment, because Hale wants the memory of his beloved has been defiled by the blood Skudritisa. Although they do not consider Skudritisa a real culprit, as Skudritis, being very limited, completely subordinated to the gifted singer and strong willed Jakubowski, and Monster Jakubowski, ending suicide, he handed himself into the hands of the devil.
When the remains of the alien hand Mai fall with all the honors and Christian customs were buried, the grieving fiance myself installed at her grave and recited the prayer cross. Shortly after Hale left the country forever and returned to their homeland in Württemberg, because his broken heart here could not find rest.
Is the Devil a corpse killer Adam Jakubowski, together with its arms and sword buried deep in a bog near Nurmiži Manor. Pēteris Skudritis sitting in jail 4 months and showed deep remorse over this time. After all this, the Royal Court decided: Skudritisa immediate release from detention and not with another penalty, sending it through the Lithuanian border back to their homeland.
The legend of Turaida Maye entered the literary revolution member of Court of the Court of Vidzeme Magnus von Vol′ffel′d. In the mid-19 century, when Riga was rebuilt the Palace, its underground cellars have found ancient documents the Court of Vidzeme. Among them was his wife’s message and also Manager of the Castle Turaida on the cave Gutmann. The trial record indicates that the legend may be based on a true incident.
Over time, the veracity of published by Magnus von Vol′ffel′dom court records continuously challenged. First, because instead of the Protocol was given the arrangement of the material. The document is based on the publication of Magnus von Vol′ffel′da, no one else has seen. Also proved that the story about the woman with the magic scarf is not something exceptional. In legends, epics and Chronicles other peoples similar stories have been described at the beginning of the 14th century. But more serious researchers admit the possibility that such a tragedy of Turaida Mai at the beginning of the 17 century superstition could be a real event.
In the same year was 1848 poem of the Baltic German poet Adalbert Kammerera “Simple girl”. Adalbert Kammerer was only a mediocre poet, deftly fact verses, but with traditional poetic thinking, without deep feelings. It depicts the story with romantic decorations, extraordinary pathos, frequently calling upon different ancient deities and praise everything German. Simple Maya for him, first, a German girl that nobler antique heroines. This poem, which is completely alien to the Latvian environment and which are not visible to this creativity, now covered with the dust of oblivion.
In Latvian literature of legend of Turaida Rose entered with Ûrisom Daugem in 1856, the story of “Simple maid”, which was issued the following year 1857-. Working on this story, he used both of the above works. But Juris Dauge has given a plot of Latvian and condemned violence against honest, insecure man. It is not that Simple Rose was a German noble, but the fact that it was a simple, youthful, honest and loving girl who will better for love to die than lose his honor. So the story of Juris Dauge “Simple maid” has the character of a home work. In 19 century it survived the 4 editions in Latvian. The last story in the Latvian language printed in 1987, that confirms that This work has stood the test of time. It was translated into other languages. Translation of the book of Juris Dauge of the Estonian language was already in 1865 in Tartu, without specifying the names of the author. Followed by other publications.
In the second half of the 19 century and at the beginning of the 20 century the legend of Turaida rose in their publications retold many authors, but only a few pieces have enough artistic level and found viable.
In 1926, He wrote the play “love is stronger than death”, which in the following year, staged by Edward E. Smiä¼ä £ is shown Daile theatre. Rainis, and play with it and the legend of Turaida Rose have gained huge popularity. People began to visit Turajdu, to lay flowers at the tomb of the Maya. Rainis, as evidenced by his statements in the year 1927, the veracity of stories did not dispute: “Maya With his heroic death in the history of our culture, a very bright place. Her noble personality-the forgotten at a time when we forget ourselves, is not more of a folk memory. In the face of Maya also-ran rises to heroism, showing that the people are the highest mental strength, but often only in latent hidden state. Such a personality in our history we can be proud of. ” The play is often shown her Raina put both professional and amateur theatres. The plays were in the courtyard of the Castle and Turaida.